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Common obsessions relate to contamination, accidents, and religious or sexual matters; common rituals include washing, checking, cleaning, counting, and touching .
Illness anxiety disorder is a somatic-symptom related disorder characterized by excessive or disproportionate preoccupations with having or acquiring a serious illness.
This includes excessive health-related behaviors and high levels of alarm about personal health status .
Each year in the United States, anxiety disorders (DSM-5 plus PTSD and OCD) impact approximately 40 million adults, or 18% of the population [4,5].
The pattern of sex distribution is consistent among anxiety disorders, and the overall female-to-male ratio is 2:1 across all age ranges .). Lifetime prevalence measures the proportion currently or previously diagnosed with the disorder, while lifetime morbid risk measures the proportion who will develop the disorder at some point, whether or not they have a lifetime history at the time of assessment.
By including future cases, lifetime morbid risk is believed more accurate.
Patient use of safety signals can interfere with therapy progress, especially exposure therapy, and are considered anti-therapeutic.
However, safety behaviors may be helpful early in treatment by making exposure therapy more tolerable and less threatening .
Safety behaviors are coping tactics by persons with anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder, agoraphobia, and social anxiety disorder, to temporarily diminish feelings of threat and reduce one's anxiety level.
Safety behaviors can emerge in response to an external (e.g., situations, persons, activities) or internal (e.g., thoughts, emotions, memories) focus of perceived threat and are anticipatory (avoidant) or consequential (escape) .
Specific, simple, or isolated phobia is the excessive or unreasonable fear of (and restricted to) animals, objects, or specific situations (e.g., dentists, spiders, elevators, flying, seeing blood) .
Adult separation anxiety disorder (SEPAD) is characterized by fear or anxiety concerning separation from those to whom an individual is attached.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by a marked, persistent, and unreasonable fear of being negatively evaluated by others .